HDB-SUTD study aims to find ways to create new urban kampungs

Today Online 7 Sep 17;

SINGAPORE — How residents move around in their neighbourhoods could soon have a big say in how town planners add or tweak features to the area.

Using data captured by motion sensors on smart lighting, for example, the decision could be made to have

Wi-Fi at void decks for residents to study. Or perhaps, identify under-utilised spaces so planners can rope in residents to re-design them.

Tapping data to uncover emerging lifestyle trends in an area is one of the ways the Housing and Development Board (HDB) is looking to take its town planning and design standards to the next level, through a S$6 million social behavioural study with the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD).

The collaboration is one of two the HDB inked on Thursday (Sept 7) at the start of the two-day International Housing Forum held at the HDB Hub in Toa Payoh. The other is a S$4.7 million agreement with the Nanyang Technological University to improve productivity in the construction process for HDB flats through the use of smart technology.

The HDB-SUTD study, which will take three years, aims to come up with a new framework, dubbed New Urban Kampung, that can predict how the demographics in towns are likely to evolve, as well as forecast how residents would respond to features introduced in their midst.

The HDB said the study will try to dive deeper into the composition of residents in a town — beyond traditional statistics such as age, race, and income — to pick out how they like to spend their time and what they like in an area.

Harnessing big data, gathered through sensor networks placed around the estate to track human traffic and movement, among others, the HDB can come up with “more targeted and customised improvements”, the agency said. Big data could also be used to examine the impact of a precinct’s design on residents’ interaction and behaviour, the HDB added.

It cited the addition of Wi-Fi to void decks as an example, given that residents are more digitally connected now. With such features, residents could use communal spaces more, and create a sense of belonging in their estate. Or if a space is found to be under-used, it can be flagged, so planners can figure out why this is so and tweak things to cater to the preferences of that community. This would go one step beyond the provision of typical communal spaces such as gardens, playgrounds and fitness corners, the HDB said.

The data collected could be used to run simulations in advanced modelling tools to predict receptiveness levels to certain new initiatives before they are rolled out.

Such data could also help identify common interests that residents of an area have.

If a particular estate is especially fond of, say, cycling, customised apps could be introduced for residents to come together and form a cycling community.

As part of developing the new framework for town planning and design, the HDB is also looking into coming up with new indicators to measure quality of life. It noted that as socio-demographic makeup of HDB towns evolves, traditional indicators such as healthcare, sanitation and safety, among others, may not adequately reflect what residents need anymore.

The HDB and SUTD will carry out research on indicators related to the material conditions and resources within a neighbourhood, such as whether the environs are too hot, how accessible amenities are, and greenery in the surroundings.

They will also look at psychosocial factors, including whether residents are cohesive, or feel a sense of belonging to their neighbourhood. “This will help guide future design and planning strategies to boost residents’ well-being,” the HDB said.

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Malaysia: Many rivers in West Malaysia considered 'dead'

ADIB POVERA New Straits Times 7 Sep 17;

KOTA SAMARAHAN: A number of rivers in West Malaysia are considered “dead”, says Deputy Energy, Green Technology and Water Minister Datuk Dr James Dawos Mamit.

Speaking at a National Transformation (TN50) dialogue session organised by the ministry here today, James revealed that checks showed the affected rivers have low or zero-levels of dissolved oxygen.

Rivers with low-level or no dissolved oxygen, he said, were a threat to fishes and aquatic plants.

“There are many rivers in West Malaysia categorised as 'dead' due pollution, which contributed to the reduction of dissolved oxygen.

“Without dissolved oxygen, fishes cannot live and the same fate awaits plants growing within the affected rivers.

“Unlike the Peninsular, the situation (pollution of rivers) in Sarawak is still under control,” he said, responding to a question by dialogue participant, who had asked on the efforts undertaken by the government to ensure a balanced development without neglecting environmental conservation.

James did not elaborate on the number of rivers identified with low-level of dissolved oxygen and efforts being conducted to restore the situation.

He, however, noted that the Federal government has embarked on many efforts to ensure that pollution is controlled while developing the country. This effort, he said, would be meaningless without the support and commitment from all stakeholders including the people.

According to a Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2015 issued by the National Resources and Environment Ministry, only seven per cent or 33 rivers from the total 477 rivers nationwide were categorised as polluted.

A total of 168 rivers of 35 per cent of the total rivers in the country were placed in the “slightly” polluted category while 276 rivers registered clean water quality index.

The report stated that Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) from inadequate sewage treatment, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N) from animal farming and domestic sewage as well as Suspended Solids (SS) from improper earthworks and land clearing activities were the main contributors to river pollution.

Meanwhile, water quality and modeling specialist, Dr Zaki Zainudin, said the problem involving rivers with low-level of dissolved oxygen could be resolved by identifying the source of the pollution.

“Like any forms of life, there are fishes and other aquatic life that are very sensitive to the level of dissolved oxygen in the river.

“And the level of dissolved oxygen in our rivers will depend on the quality of the water. If the rivers are severely polluted, hence it would also affect the level of dissolved oxygen in the country,” he said.

Reducing pollution, he said, is less costly compared to cleaning up rivers. He cited the example of the River of Life project, which cost the Federal government more than RM4 billion, to beautify the Klang and Gombak rivers.

“Imagine having to spend the same amount to restore all polluted rivers in the country. Hence, it is better to identify the source of pollution and find ways to reduce it,” he said.

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Indonesia’s plan for ‘10 new Balis’ offers vast opportunities for Singapore investors

TAN WEIZHEN Today Online 8 Sep 17;

SINGAPORE — Holding up Indonesia’s strong economic potential and improved business environment, the country’s officials yesterday underscored how its plans to create “10 new Balis” will open up vast opportunities for Singapore investors in tourism and infrastructure projects.

Under the “10 new Balis” blueprint, the Indonesia government has earmarked 10 destinations for development: Lake Toba, Tanjung Kelayang, Tanjung Lesung, Kepulauan Seribu & Kota Tua Jakarta, Borobudur, Bromo-Tengger-Semeru, Mandalika, Labuan Bajo, Wakatobi and Morotai. It projects that, by 2019, these places will draw 10 million tourists in total annually.

In tandem with the expected growth, 120,000 hotel rooms, 15,000 restaurants, 100 international recreational parks and 100 diving operators will be added to the destinations, said Indonesia’s Tourism Minister Arief Yahya, who was speaking at the Singapore-Indonesia Investment Forum. Other infrastructure will also be built, such as solar facilities to boost the power sources, said Mr Yahya.

In total, the Indonesia government is seeking US$20 billion (S$26.8 billion) in investment for the initiative, with half of it going to public infrastructure investment. Urging Singapore businesses to invest in Indonesia, Mr Yahya said that more than 90 per cent of the tourism industry will welcome foreign direct investment.

Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry chairman Rosan Perkasa Roeslani added: “At this juncture, the Indonesia government is actively encouraging the development of the 10 tourist destinations, including the development of related industries such as hotels, transportation, recreation, and more.”

Singapore Business Federation (SBF) chairman Teo Siong Seng, who also spoke at the event, noted that investments from Singapore into Indonesia has been increasing. Last year, the figure hit US$9.2 billion, an increase of 55 per cent from 2015.

There will be “potential business opportunities” for Singapore investors arising from the “10 new Balis” initiative, he said. Citing the findings of a recent SBF survey, Mr Teo said that Indonesia was the overseas market with the highest interest among the Singapore business community. “This is not surprising, as many economic indicators are pointing to Indonesia’s positive gross domestic product growth and huge market potential,” said Mr Teo. “There is also a strong push by the Indonesia government to improve the investment environment for foreign investors.”

Indonesian President Joko Widodo, who was in Singapore on a two-day visit that ended yesterday, gave a speech at the forum, which was also attended by Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong.

In the opening remarks, Mr Lee spoke about the strong bilateral economic links and the areas for future collaboration, among other things. In particular, he noted that there was great potential to grow tourism between the two countries further.

Mr Widodo said in his speech that Indonesia has become more business-friendly in recent years. For instance, under the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Index, Indonesia jumped 15 places to the 91st spot between last year and this year. Last year, Indonesia was also ranked first in a Gallup survey on public trust in government. All three major international rating agencies — Standard & Poor’s, Fitch and Moody’s — have also rated Indonesia as investment grade.

Nevertheless, Mr Widodo acknowledged there were still challenges in doing business in Indonesia, but he pledged to address them. “Doing business in Indonesia is still far too frustrating, too many rules and regulations. They are constantly changing, and too often poorly designed ... We will continue to push and continue to find new ways to improve investment and business climate in Indonesia,” he said.

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Indonesia unveils policy to speed up expansion of mangroves

Xinhua 7 Sep 17;

JAKARTA, Sept. 7 (Xinhua) -- The government of Indonesia has issued a regulation to preserve and accelerate expansion of mangrove forest in the archipelagic nation, a senior government official said here on Thursday.

The rules provide guidance to provincial administrations and other stakeholders in managing mangrove forest based on the characteristic of their territory, said Montty Girianna, deputy for energy, natural resources and environment management at the chief economic ministry.

The rule would also be expected to prevent and restore damages in mangrove forest in the country, according to the official.

According to ministry of environment and forestry it has been recorded 1.67 million hectares of damages in Indonesia's mangroves forest and only a total of 1.82 million hectares remains in a good condition.

"So that, our target of a 3.49 million hectares of mangroves forest coverage can be achieved in 2045," said Girianna.

Under the rules, it was also included public participation in preserving mangroves forest and planting coastline with plants.

Indonesia, home to over 17,500 islands, has about 95,000 kilometers coastline and harbors nearly a quarter of the world's mangroves.

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Indonesia: BMKG Forecasts Low Rainfall on September, Raises Forest and Land Fire Alert

Netral News 7 Sep 17;

JAKARTA, NETRALNEWS.COM - The Indonesia Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG) predicts low to medium (0-300mm/month) rainfall in Indonesia for the month of September, particularly in Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, southern South Sulawesi, southern parts of Southeast Sulawesi , Buru Island, Maluku Province, and Sekiar, South Merauke, Papua Province.

Therefore, these areas need to be watched, because these conditions can trigger potential forest and land fires.

Raffles Panjaitan, Director of Forest and Land Fire Control at the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, said most of the causes of land/forest fires attributed to humans, as compared to weather conditions.

"The Ministry of Environment and Forestry has conducted various measures to prevent forest and land fires together with relevant parties and institutions to prevent smoke hazard from forest fires from happening again. One of the intensive efforts is conducted by Manggala Agni by continuing to socialize and coach the community," Raffles said on Thursday (9/7/2017).

Meanwhile on Tuesday (5/9/2017), Manggala Agni’s Tinggangea Operations Team conducted fire prevention efforts in one of sweet potato plantation areas in Tinanggea, sub-district of South Konawe Regency.

The fire was put out at 14.31 local time. The Manggala Agni team put out the fire through the assistance of Tinaggea Police personnel and the local community.

Fires had spread to the plantation area because of the wind that blew quite fast, hot weather and burning vegetation in the form of reeds that were very flammable. After 2 hours of trying to put out the fires at 2 points of approximately 6.66 ha, the fires were finally extinguished.

"The threat of forest and land fires can occur anywhere, not only in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Especially when the weather is still dry, very influential on the potential for forest and land fires across the territory of Indonesia ", said Raffles.

Raffles B. Panjaitan added, Manggala Agni scattered throughout Indonesia is always ready to handle forest and land fires that can happen at any time. Hotspot and weather monitoring is also conducted daily, to find out the latest conditions and early detection of karhutla in the work area of Daops.

Equally important, coordination across agencies and other stakeholders is also continuously enhanced in order to mitigate these efforts optimally. "

The monitoring result of Forest and Land Fire Control Post on September 5, 2017 at 20.00 WIB on NOAA19 Satellite was observed 10 with details of Bangka Belitung Province 5 points (Belitung, Central Bangka, Bangka, West Bangka), East Java three points (Sidoarjo Regency, Banyuwangi, Situbondo), South Sumatera one point (Ogan Ilir Regency), and East Kalimantan 1 point (Berau District).

Public awareness in anticipating karhutla is very important, in addition to supervision and coordination to prevent the spread of fire spread. "Through Manggala Agni members, we always appeal and give understanding related to the ban on land burning, so that the prevention of karhutla can be effective," Raffles added.

Based on Satellite TERRA AQUA (NASA) and Satellite TERRA AQUA (LAPAN) the confidence level of ≥80% shows the same number of hotspots as 29 points with 2 points in South Sumatra, 2 points in West Sulawesi, 11 points in East Nusa Tenggara, 1 point in Nusa Tenggara Barat, 1 point in Gorontalo, 1 point in East Kalimantan, 6 points in South Sulawesi, and 5 points of Central Sulawesi.

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Indonesia: Let nature reclaim the reclamation islands

Muamar Vebry
Program manager for climate change for the European Union delegation to Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam
Jakarta Post 7 Sep 17;

At least 17 artificial islands with a projected total area as big as Bogor regency in West Java are queuing in the pipeline; the project significantly will alter and degrade the already fragile environment slong the coast of Jakarta. The artificial islands will change sea currents which can lead to the erosion of nearby natural islands or even cause more flooding of the city. Fishermen have protested, saying that the project will affect their catch, and that they must go further out to sea to fish, increasing their gasoline expenses.

We need to understand better the impact of such big artificial human built creations and its links to the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity. The cost benefit analysis that is usually conducted is inadequate as the loss of ecosystem services is usually not well quantified. The approach to measure the loss of services and marine biodiversity should be done using more robust analytical tools such as applying the total economic valuation technique that puts the ecosystem services at the heart of the equation.

There are high hopes that the new government of Jakarta which starts in October should cancel all the planned future reclamation islands while reclamation of the islands called C, D and G should be terminated, audited, to be further decided on their best functions for public use. Jakarta deputy governor-elect Sandiaga Uno has reaffirmed the new government’s stance to stop the reclamation.

As a trained and urban planner exposed to nature conservation aspects, my view is that the already-formed islands should be used for the good of our environment as we need to address the loss of marine ecosystems in Jakarta’s bay progressively.

The keyword is ecosystem restoration, a means to appropriate the environmental damages and turn what has been lost during the reclamation into substantial environmental gains. Marine biodiversity has been disturbed and altered due to massive reclamation so therefore it is our duty now to conduct the readjustment and to create a new equilibrium that will benefit the natural ecosystem, replacing what has been lost due to human intervention.

In that vein, the new government of Jakarta should consider foresting the land cover with the local and endemic trees species, combined with systematic mangrove introduction on its shores. Turning those islands into forested space will significantly reduce greenhouse gas and other dangerous particles from the atmosphere. In addition, introducing mangrove will create an enabling environment for vast arrays of marine species to breed, which economically will benefit the local communities and fishermen.

Imagine the reforested artificial islands in another ten or 15 years from now where mother nature has taken over. Among many other benefits besides ecotourism potentials, such islands could also be the alternative for migrating birds, replacing substantial amount of bird migration hotspots along the coastline that are under tremendous pressure from human intervention.

Migratory birds need multiple sites to find adequate food resources on their journey. Increase of human population and the fastest growing economies threatens the bird’s migration considerably. Fifty bird species are at risk of extinction in the past 24 years. Natural system modification is the biggest threat to the birds’ Southeast Asia migration route due to loss of wetlands because of land reclamation. Islands number C, D and G may have just saved many birds from extinction if we choose to embark with the ecosystem restoration.

All of these may sound like a distant utopia but nonetheless it is attainable. The question is how bold is the new government to orchestrate the ecosystem restoration? Will the fishes and the birds win or will the capital, as always?


The writer is program manager for climate change for the European Union Delegation to Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam. This article is a personal view and does not reflect the EU policy.

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Increasing effective decision-making for coastal marine ecosystems

University of Queensland Science Daily 7 Sep 17;

Marine restoration, rather than protection, might be the most cost-effective solution for coastal marine ecosystems suffering from human activities, a new study has found. The study examined how to best benefit coastal marine ecosystems on limited conservation budgets, to help managers better understand the trade-offs.

Marine restoration, rather than protection, might be the most cost-effective solution for coastal marine ecosystems suffering from human activities, a new study has found.

The University of Queensland and the Australian Research Council Centre for Excellence in Environmental Decisions study examined how to best benefit coastal marine ecosystems on limited conservation budgets, to help managers better understand the trade-offs.

UQ Development Fellow Dr Megan Saunders said the researchers developed a model comparing scenarios of restoration versus protection, on land, or in the sea, for coastal marine ecosystems.

"Coastal ecosystems like seagrass, coral and mangroves occupy the narrow fringe of sea between the land and the deep ocean," Dr Saunders said.

"As such they provide easy access to the marine world -- they are shallow, close to shore, and relatively calm places compared to the open ocean.

"These same features also make coastal ecosystems vulnerable to human activities -- activities occurring both on land and in the ocean. Consequently, these ecosystems pose a number of challenges to managers."

Dr Saunders said conventional wisdom was that the most effective conservation actions to benefit coastal marine ecosystems involved implementing marine protected areas, or alternatively reducing land-based threats.

"Active marine restoration, on the other hand, is typically considered a low priority option," she said.

"This is due in part, to high costs and low success rates.

"However, our model, based on seagrass meadows and adjacent catchments in Southeast Queensland, found that contrary to conventional wisdom, and despite high costs, marine restoration may be the most cost-effective way over decades to maximise the extent of marine ecosystems under particular circumstances.

"This assumes that there is suitable habitat available for restoration (such as planting seagrass transplants); clearly, if suitable habitat does not exist, for example due to poor water quality, then other actions would take priority."

Dr Saunders said the researchers had developed some simple rules to guide decision-making for whether restoration or protection should occur in either marine or terrestrial environments to best benefit marine ecosystems.

"These rules-of-thumb illustrate how cost-effective conservation outcomes for connected land-ocean systems can proceed without complex modelling," she said.

The paper, Simple rules can guide whether land or ocean based conservation will best benefit marine ecosystems, is published in PLOS Biology.

Journal Reference:

Megan I. Saunders, Michael Bode, Scott Atkinson, Carissa J. Klein, Anna Metaxas, Jutta Beher, Maria Beger, Morena Mills, Sylvaine Giakoumi, Vivitskaia Tulloch, Hugh P. Possingham. Simple rules can guide whether land- or ocean-based conservation will best benefit marine ecosystems. PLOS Biology, 2017; 15 (9): e2001886 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2001886

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India: Fishing cat faces extinction threat

Vishal Gulati Odisha Sun Times 7 Sep 17;

New Delhi: The elusive and endangered fishing cat — almost twice the size of a house cat — is under significant threat of local extinction in India and Sri Lanka, a US-based Indian biologist has warned.

This species is believed to be almost extinct in Indonesia.

“Several small projects and studies in the recent past, especially in India and Sri Lanka, have shown that fishing cats are now restricted to small, isolated, fragmented populations that are under significant threat of local extinction,” Fishing Cat Conservancy President Ashwin Naidu told IANS in an email interview.

The fishing cats, a wetland-adapted species, are found in over 11 countries in South and Southeast Asia, from Pakistan to Indonesia. But it’s one of the least studied wild cat species globally.

Naidu, currently working in coastal south India on community-based conservation of this species, said like other wild cat species, the primary threats to the fishing cat survival are aquaculture, agriculture, hunting, poaching and retaliatory killing by livestock owners.

Many mangroves where the fishing cats live are quickly being lost to deforestation and aquaculture.

In Sri Lanka, fishing cats occupy many inland wetlands and are often subject to injuries due to road traffic and constructions such as water wells.

According to Naidu, the human demands have reduced and fragmented wetlands and coastal mangroves that these cats need to survive. “Yes, aquaculture is probably the biggest threat to this species since it is responsible for anywhere between 50-80 per cent of the lost mangrove forest cover throughout South and Southeast Asia.”

Wetlands along the major river systems leading down to their estuaries and mangroves — the Ganges, the Yamuna and the Brahmaputra rivers leading up to the Sundarbans; the Mahanadi and the Brahmani river deltas in Orissa; and the Godavari and Krishna river deltas in Andhra Pradesh — are the fishing cats’ habitat.

Naidu said fishing cats are probably locally extirpated in many parts of what may have been their former range — wetlands along all these major rivers’ paths or watersheds.

They are now restricted mainly to the few areas that are relatively protected like the national parks and sanctuaries along these river systems.

“However, it’s important to note that there are many wetlands and mangroves outside protected areas where these cats have been recently documented and it is important to work towards protecting these yet unprotected and undesignated coastal mangroves and wetlands where these cats still survive,” the biologist said.

Surprisingly, no one knows about or has estimated the number of fishing cats — which prey primarily on fish and crustaceans — in the wild.

“Studies are needed to estimate their numbers at the local, regional and global scales,” Naidu said.

Fishing Cat Conservancy’s community-based conservation programmes are centered on education and capacity-building to enhance local involvement, especially in and near areas where fishing cats occur in India.

A majority of its work’s focus is on areas outside protected regions where conflicts and the potential for conservation are higher than inside already established protected areas.

“We function with an open-access, science-based conservation philosophy and share knowledge with everyone interested in wildlife conservation,” an optimistic Naidu said.

He favors more research and conservation efforts, particularly long-term community-based conservation efforts, required to protect the fishing cat and their globally important wetland and mangrove habitats.

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Asia must lead charge for pollution-free planet - UN environment head

Thin Lei Win Reuters 8 Sep 17;

BANGKOK, Sept 8 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Asia-Pacific - home to more than half the world’s population and some of its fastest-growing economies - is a key battleground in the fight against pollution, one of the biggest threats to the planet and its people, the U.N. environment chief said.

An estimated 12 million people die prematurely each year because of unhealthy environments, 7 million of them due to air pollution alone, making pollution “the biggest killer of humanity”, Erik Solheim told the first Asia-Pacific Ministerial Summit on the Environment in Bangkok this week.

Humans have caused pollution and humans can fix it, said Solheim, executive director of UN Environment, in an interview with the Thomson Reuters Foundation at the four-day summit.

“The struggle for a pollution-free planet will be won or lost in Asia - nowhere else,” said the former Norwegian minister for environment and international development.

The sheer size of Asia-Pacific, as well as its continued economic growth, put it at the heart of the challenge, he added.

The region’s development has been accompanied by worsening pollution of its air, water and soil. Its emissions of planet-warming carbon dioxide doubled between 1990 and 2012, and the use of resources such as minerals, metals and biomass has tripled, according to the United Nations.

World Health Organization figures also show Asia has 25 of the world’s 30 most polluted cities in terms of fine particles in the air that pose the greatest risks to human health. The pollution comes largely from the combustion of fossil fuels, mostly for transport and electricity generation.

Solheim said Asia is also a major contributor of plastic polluting the world’s oceans - and solutions can be found in the region. He pointed to a huge beach clean-up campaign in Mumbai that inspired Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi to overhaul the country’s waste management system.

“There’s enormous environmental opportunity,” Solheim said. “Asia has by and large strong governments, and they have the ability to fix problems.”


Solheim said fighting pollution by moving towards renewable energy sources such as wind and solar would also benefit efforts to curb climate change, which scientists say is stoking more deadly heatwaves, floods and sea level rise around the world.

But environmentalists worry that Asia’s demand for coal, the most polluting of the major fossil fuels, is likely to grow for years to come.

Figures from a forum organised by the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center in Singapore earlier this year show that some 273 gigawatts of coal power are still being built, although much more has been put on hold.

In July, analysts told the Thomson Reuters Foundation that Japan, China and South Korea are bank-rolling coal-fired power plants in Indonesia despite their pledges to reduce planet-warming emissions under the Paris climate deal.

The landmark 2015 Paris Agreement seeks to limit the rise in average world temperatures to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial times. Experts say curbing or ending the use of coal is required if this goal is to be reached.

Globally, many countries - including China - are shutting down or suspending plans for coal-fired power plants as costs for wind and solar power plummet.

Solheim is optimistic, noting that the International Energy Agency significantly raised its five-year growth forecast for renewables led by China, India, the United States and Mexico.

“There are very, very few people in the world who believe that the future is coal,” he said. “I think we will see the shift (to renewables) happening much faster than people tend to believe.”

On U.S. President Donald Trump’s decision to pull his nation out of the Paris Agreement, Solheim sees a silver lining.

“The surprising judgement of history may be that Donald Trump did a lot of service to this fight against climate change by withdrawing, because he galvanised the reaction of everyone else,” said Solheim.

"All the big, iconic companies of modern capitalism - Apple, Google, Microsoft, Amazon - they immediately said, 'We will move into the green economy'." (Reporting by Thin Lei Win; editing by Megan Rowling. Please credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers humanitarian news, climate change, resilience, women's rights, trafficking and property rights. Visit news.trust.org/climate)

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