Best of our wild blogs: 13 Mar 18

17-18 Mar: 'The Fun Odyssea' - community launch for kids and the family
Sisters' Island Marine Park

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Unprecedented push by scientists from Commonwealth nations to take more action on climate change

This is the first time Commonwealth nations have come together to urge their governments to take further action to push global emissions down to "net zero" this century.
Samantha Boh Straits Times 12 Mar 18;

SINGAPORE - The Singapore National Academy of Science has joined an unprecedented push within the Commonwealth for governments to do more to cut emissions down to net zero.

The scientific body and 21 other national academies and societies of science launched a consensus statement on Monday (March 12), urging leaders to look at current scientific evidence on climate change, and to take action now.

The consensus statement, which represents the views of tens of thousands of scientists, marks the first time Commonwealth nations have come together to urge their governments to take further action to push global emissions down to "net zero" this century.

The statement said the academies stand ready to give scientific advice on climate change.

This comes ahead of next month's Commonwealth summit in Britain, at which sustainability is a key theme to be discussed, with a particular focus on the resilience of developing nations that are vulnerable to climate change.

Under the 2015 Paris Agreement, Singapore has pledged to reduce its emissions intensity by 36 per cent from 2005 levels, come 2030. Emissions intensity is the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to achieve each dollar of gross domestic product.

Singapore has also pledged to stop any increase to its greenhouse gas emissions by around 2030.

But it is just the first step in a long journey, said Professor Andrew Wee, president of the Singapore National Academy of Science.

"Even if all the country commitments from the Paris Agreement are met, the latest data shows that by the end of the century the global climate is likely to be 3 deg C above pre-industrial levels, Prof Wee said.

"This is substantially higher than the Paris target to limit warming to less than 2 deg C, and would have profound impacts affecting billions of people throughout the world."

He noted that the approaches of each nation will not be the same.

"But, they must be informed by the best available scientific evidence, monitoring and evaluation," Prof Wee said.

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Scouts get funding to make Sarimbun Camp a hub for biodiversity

Lucas Wong The New Paper 13 Mar 18;

The Macaque Working Group (MWG) wants to promote peaceful coexistence between humans and long-tailed macaques - by educating the public.

Monkeys are often seen as a nuisance or even a menace for entering homes to steal food, but MWG's spokesman Vilma D'Rozario said this is a result of misguided people feeding the wild animals in the first place.

The National Institute of Education associate professor in psychological studies added: "The feeding needs to stop. Otherwise, we are sending a message that though the forest may be rich in food, it is easier to rely on handouts from humans."

Last week, the group received a funding boost when it was picked as a beneficiary of OCBC Bank's #OCBCCares Fund for the Environment.

The bank set aside $100,000 to support ground-up projects that enhance Singapore's landscape when it launched the fund last July.

So far, $87,000 has been given to six projects.

The group, led by Dr Andie Ang, a primatologist, plans to hold workshops to train people to understand the facial expressions and body language of macaques.

Plans to develop monkey-proof bins are also in the pipeline.

Dr D'Rozario, who has nearly 20 years' experience in conservation efforts, said: "We want people to live in harmony with the macaques, not just be tolerant or aware of their presence."

Another #OCBCCares Fund beneficiary, Mr Karl Png, 20, has started a project to transform the Sarimbun Scout Camp in Lim Chu Kang into a biodiversity centre.

He and fellow rover scouts Rishab Patwari and Muhammed Syafiq Mohamed Sahrom, also 20, hope to attract wildlife like the endangered straw-headed bulbul and the white-bellied sea eagle.

Mr Png, who has just completed his National Service, said: "We realised we could use this as a platform to teach about biodiversity."


Recalling an incident in Bali years ago when a macaque made off with his water bottle, Mr Png said he learned to respect wildlife instead of blaming the animal.

He said: "I read that people had conditioned the macaques by feeding them. That's why they dared to steal from people."

Mr Png hopes projects like his can inspire others to be more conscious of the environment.

He said: "Environmental sustainability may not be profitable, but it is meaningful as it helps you develop compassion for all living things - wildlife and people alike."

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Collagen from fish scales could heal wounds, Singapore study finds

Channel NewsAsia 12 Mar 18;

SINGAPORE: Collagen derived from fish scales could be used to heal wounds, according to a study conducted by researchers at the Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and National University of Singapore (NUS).

The study included fish scales from fishes that are commonly cooked such as sea bass, snakehead and tilapia.

The scales, usually removed before cooking, contain collagen that can be chemically modified to be water-soluble and used for various biomedical applications, NTU said in a press release on Monday (Mar 12).

The modified collagen can also incorporate drugs to produce wound dressings with a higher healing potential, according to the findings from the team comprising assistant professor Cleo Choong and associate professor Andrew Tan from NTU, and associate professor Veronique Angeli from NUS.

The modified collagen was later tested on mice and it was found that it helped improve the "potential for tissue repair and regeneration", according to the study was published in the research journal Acta Biomaterialia.

"Applying collagen dressings to a wound to stimulate tissue growth can provide relief for a wide variety of injuries.

"Collagen dressings come in all shapes and sizes – gels, pastes, powders and pads. It can potentially treat wounds of all dimensions,” said Dr Tan, who is from the NTU School of Biological Sciences.

The study also showed that fish scales-derived collagen was also easily obtained as 200mg of collagen could be extracted from one or two fish, and the extraction process costs just over S$4.


The research team partnered with a local fish farm that supplied the fish scales used in the study.

“We descale and sell over 200 fish a day to wholesalers, restaurants and walk-in customers. If these discarded fish scales can lead to successful biomedical applications in future, it would be a good use of these waste material," said the owner of KhaiSeng Trading & Fish Farm, Mr Teo Khai Seng.

The research team is also in talks with a few local fisheries to find ways to convert aquaculture waste material, like fish scales, into useful materials, as well as to scale-up the collagen extraction process for effective waste-to-resource management.


Previous studies from the same team also highlighted the effects of fish scale-derived collagen on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The cells produced 2.5 times more collagen responsible for blood vessel formation than cells cultured on other forms of collagen.

The findings have gained international attention as the collagen from non-mammalian sources could overcome the various biological and cultural issues associated with collagen from cattle and pigs.

"Clinical application of these materials has been limited due to cultural and religious restrictions associated with these mammalian tissue-derived materials.

"In addition, more checks and processing have to be in place due to the risk of diseases that can be transmitted from mammals to humans," said assistant professor Choong, who is from the NTU School of Materials Science and Engineering.

Source: CNA/aa

Fish scales may be used for wound healing
TOH EE MING Today Online 12 Mar 18;

SINGAPORE — Fish scales and bullfrog skins containing collagen could be used to make wound dressings for burn victims or diabetic patients with chronic, slow-healing wounds in the not-too-distant future.

A study led by Nanyang Technological University (NTU) scientists found that the scales and skins — which contain collagen but are often thrown away — can be converted into useful materials.

Using chemical modification, the water-soluble collagen can be made into wound dressings in the form of gels, pastes, powders or pads that could be applied directly onto the skin, said NTU associate professor Andrew Tan, who is part of the team behind the study.

This could potentially treat wounds by promoting the growth of blood and lymphatic vessels, which improves the potential of tissue repair and regeneration.

Collagen dressings are typically suitable for different wound types, such as bed sores, minor burns, foot ulcers, chronic wounds and large open cuts.

Fish scales can offer a potentially useful alternative source of collagen.

While collagen is already “widely used for various biomedical applications”, most of the products that are commercially available come from animal sources like pigs, cows and sheep, said assistant professor Cleo Choong from the NTU School of Materials Science and Engineering.

They have limited clinical application due to “cultural and religious restrictions” associated with these mammal sources, she added. Greater checks and processing also have to be in place due to the risk of diseases that can be transmitted from mammals to humans.

Compared to cattle-based sources, collagen from fish scales has also been found to trigger human umbilical vein endothelial cells to produce 2.5 times more of a type of collagen that can boost blood vessel formation, according to a previous study by the same team of NTU scientists that was published in 2016.

Already, the team’s findings have drawn interest from some biomedical product manufacturing companies that are keen to turn to other non-mammal sources.

For the project, KhaiSeng Trading and Fish Farm supplied the researchers with fish scales from sea bass, snakehead and tilapia. Compared to cowhide, fish scales are cheaper and are usually removed from the fish before cooking.

About 200 milligrams of collagen can be derived from 10 grams of fish scales – the amount that can be obtained from one or two fishes.

Excluding labour costs, it costs about S$4 to extract about 100 mg of collagen from fish scales in the lab.

The team is currently in talks with two local fisheries, to convert aquaculture waste material into useful materials and scale-up the collagen extraction process.

A large amount of aquaculture waste is produced yearly, with aquaculture production expected to hit 102 million tonnes by 2025, according to the 2016 State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture report published by the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organisation.

Speaking to TODAY on Monday (March 12), research fellow Dr Wang Jun Kit said that the next step would involve tests on bigger animals and human trials – which could take five to six years – before the product can be commercially available.

“They could facilitate tissue growth and speed up the overall wound healing process, but we would need to do more research and testing in this area,” said Dr Wang, adding that the research process began since 2012.

His team is looking at other collagen sources, such as bullfrog skin, which is also commonly discarded.

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Philippines: From poacher to protector - Local communities embrace conservation of crucial marine treasure

Jack Board Channel NewsAsia 13 Mar 18;

LOBO, Philippines: Sonny Badal cared little about the environment as a young man. He plundered the coral reefs near his home village of their aquatic treasures, captured fish in their sanctuaries and relished the money he made as a result.

He says he was one of the most successful fishermen in the area - Lobo, a sleepy coastal municipality in Batangas, southern Luzon.

It is a place where the sun shines strong on long stretches of white sand and wooden boats drift languorously on the viridian water that extends to the horizon. During the long monsoon season, clouds roll in with foreboding, unfeelingly dropping shadow and squally rain on the same boats and the men who navigate them.

“When I first started fishing, it didn’t matter to me at all. The only thing that mattered to me was to catch more fish,” he said.

“I used to place my net on top of the corals to catch more fish, where a lot of them live. It gave me a large amount of profit.”

It would take years for Badal to see the impact of what he was doing to the precious marine ecosystem around him. Over the years, his yields reduced as the reefs reeled. He did not quite understand why.

“I didn’t have any idea what would be the outcome of my wrongdoings. A lot of corals had been damaged because of what I did,” he admitted.

When a friend took Badal to visit a model marine sanctuary at Romblon where protected fish species would swim right up to human hands, something changed in him. “It amazed me and encouraged me to do better,” he said.

“Then I came back to our village and shared my experience and immediately they appointed me as the new chairman for a commission on fisheries. I was unruly back then, but to be able to do better and learn from my mistakes I accepted the position and did my job well.

“I became more educated and gained more knowledge on how to preserve and protect our sea and its marine resources.”

Badal’s decision was not inconsequential. His fishing ground, and that of thousands of others, is at the heart of the Verde Island Passage (VIP), considered the epicentre of the world’s marine biodiversity.

It boasts hundreds of species of coral, is a whale migration spot, a tourist attraction and a source of renewal for other stuttering reefs around the world. At least two million people directly or indirectly rely upon the VIP for food or livelihood.

Badal is now one of its chief defenders. His community has formed Batangday Dagat, a sea patrol unit that hunts for fellow fishermen who continue to pillage the seas.

Batangay Dagat take their guard in the darkness. Even the light from a cigarette will betray their location as they lurk between the waves. With no moonlight above, the blackness is thick and unrelenting but these men need no compass on these waters.

“There are many intruders who want to get into our marine sanctuary. Some of them take the corals. They even look for some sea decorations and herbal medicines to sell to Chinese businessmen in Manila,” he said.

“Some of them are armed with high-powered guns.

“I feel disappointed. Obviously we have the same occupation but some people are not content, they break rules and do illegal things.”

Putting environmental protection ahead of daily needs is a reality that can be hard to reconcile for poor communities here.

Joseph Ascalon, through non-government organisation The SEA Insitute, is leading an awareness campaign about the importance of conserving the natural wonder of the VIP.

“The first thing we do is to help them see what’s out there,” he said.

“We show them pictures of the species out there and they’re like, woah, that’s there? That’s in front of my house? They start to realise that each species is unique, it’s important and it sort of gives them the drive to and the passion to protect what they have,” he said.

“On the other hand it’s also very difficult because they see the Verde Island Passage as a source of livelihood, so you have to do a little bit of a balancing act of how much development do you put in to get their livelihood versus protecting it for the future. “

Development has not come fast to Lobo, but there are the stirrings of a tourism industry ready to bloom. Its location is lucrative, close to major industry infrastructure and within a half-day drive from Manila making the area potentially far more accessible than other popular holiday beacons like Palawan or Cebu.

Already, sprawling villas straddle the coastline, owned by sporadically-visiting movie stars who for now still call subsistence fishermen their neighbours.

“It’s starting to get developed. And the communities here need to realise with development comes a lot of benefits, but can also create a lot of stresses, a lot of negative impact on their environment,” Ascalon said.

“It’s gratifying to see that they’re changing their mindsets, changing fishing methods and making sure that they protect these fishes.”

The VIP has remained resilient despite ongoing threats from climate change, warmer waters and increasingly regular typhoons. But natural resistance is finite, Ascalon argues, and eventually the trends leading towards local environmental destruction will need to be reversed by all those depending on the passage.

“I’m optimistic because there is no other way. It’s not an option to lose the Verde Island passage and its resources. There are real challenges but we have hope,” he said.

Badal too feels assured, despite the chemical-wielding poachers, the looming mega-resorts and the rising menace of global warming, that his small part of the world under his care and custody will thrive into the future. As he dives below the surface through the colourful formations and enormous artificial reefs his organisation has installed he can already see the progress.

“Today, if you can see our ocean down there, it looks like an underwater paradise,” he said. “It is very fulfilling on my part and a huge achievement.”

For more on this and other projects around Southeast Asia, tune in to Tapestry: The Heart of ASEAN on Channel NewsAsia every Tuesday from Feb 27 to Mar 27 at 11pm.

Source: CNA/jb

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Indonesia: NGO urges Jokowi to halt land permit issuance

The Jakarta Post 12 Mar 18;

Civil society group AURIGA Nusantara is calling on President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo through an online petition to stop local officials from issuing more land permits to businessmen.

A study commissioned by AURIGA found an increase in the issuance of mining, plantation and forest use permits a year before and after the 2015 regional elections, with a total of 13,000 land permits issued during the period of 2014-2016.

In the study, AURIGA came to the conclusion that local heads in many areas across Indonesia had received political campaign funds from businessmen as compensation for facilitating the issuance of permits.

“They have misused their authority,” the group said on Monday about the petition posted on

AURIGA said such corrupt practices might affect people’s lives because deforestation and forest fires continued to increase every year, causing local communities to lose their ancestral land and water sources. “If we don’t take action, we will all lose our homes,” the group said.

Indonesia Corruption Watch (ICW) activist Tama S. Langkun said that in addition to a moratorium, the government also needed to reform local offices in order to prevent such misdeeds from recurring ahead of the upcoming regional elections.

“This kind of corruption hurts both the environment and the people,” Tama said on Sunday, adding that the public also needed to pay more attention to expose environment-related corruption.

Citing ICW data, the activist said Indonesia had lost around Rp 2.7 trillion (US$196.02 million) from a corruption case related to land permit issuance in North Konawe and another Rp 2.3 trillion from the e-ID case. (sha/ebf)

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Indonesia: 100 lawyers prepared to tackle industrial pollution in Sukoharjo

Ganug Nugroho Adi The Jakarta Post 12 Mar 18;

The Indonesian Advocates Association (Peradi) in Surakarta, Central Java, has prepared 100 lawyers to file both criminal and civil lawsuits against textile company PT Rayon Utama Makmur (RUM) over alleged environmental pollution.

The lawyers are calling on the police to immediately investigate the pollution, which affects communities living near the textile factory’s site in Sukoharjo regency.

Previously, the Semarang Legal Aid Institute (LBH) reportedly supported three environmental activists detained by the Central Java Police over their protests against pollution allegedly committed by PT RUM. The Indonesian Forum for the Environment (Walhi) and the Surakarta Muhammadiyah University’s (UMS) legal division have also conveyed their readiness to give legal assistance to the activists.

As previously reported, Muhammad “Lis” Hisbun Payu, Kelvin Ferdiansyah Subekti and Sutarno were arrested by the police over their alleged involvement in the destruction of assets belonging to PT RUM during a rally on Feb.23.

“We prepared 100 lawyers to file a lawsuit against PT RUM. We have data support from Walhi and UMS’ investigation team,” said Peradi Surakarta chairman Badrus Zaman on Monday.

He said there were two procedures the lawyers could use to submit their lawsuits, namely via a class action or via Walhi. “In principle, we want to ask the government to share responsibilities in the management of environment that has been affected by industrial pollution,” said Badrus.

Sukoharjo residents have launched a string of protests against environmental pollution caused by PT RUM. In some rallies, they called on Sukoharjo regent Wardoyo to close down the textile factory. (ebf)

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Indonesia: Jakarta Bay pollution a threat to future`s generation

Muhammad Razi Rahman/A. Saragi Antara 12 Mar 18;

Jakarta (ANTARA News) - Pollution of the Jakarta Bay has caused great concern for people aware of the extent of damage it could cause to the public health especially of the future`s generation.

More hazardous is pollution by plastic garbage, which is not easily degraded or decomposed. It would take tens even hundreds of years for plastic to be decomposed as against only days for banana peels, an expert has said.

Comprehensive planning, therefore, is necessary to clean the Jakarta Bay especially from plastic garbage to protect the ecology from disaster in the future .

Former Minister of Environment Emil Salim addressing expert discussion at the Jakarta Convention Hall earlier this month called for serious commitment to bringing to reality a vision that in 2030 the sea water in the Jakarta Bay could be used as a source for fresh water fit for human and industrial consumption.

Emil cited a number of steps that could be taken for that purpose including construction of offshore reservoirs and by cleaning the 13 rivers emptying into the bay in addition to effective treatment of garbage especially plastic garbage.

He said Indonesia is the second largest producer of plastic garbage in the world after China.

He expressed appreciation for the program announced two years earlier by the Minister of the Environment and Forestry banning the use of plastic bags for merchandise by hypermarkets and supermarkets.

Plastic garbage could be recycled to be economically valuable or as a source of income instead of throwing it into the rivers or the sea, he said.

Emil called for the organization of a movement of communities mainly the grass roots to clean the Jakarta Bay from waste, mainly plastic garbage.

Expert staff of the Marine and Fisheries Minister for Ecology and Sea Resources Aryo Hanggono said the government has a commitment to cleaning the sea including the Jakarta Bay from plastic garbage.

Currently, a draft presidential decree is being prepared to regulate the cleaning of the sea from plastic garbage. The regulation calls for coordinated action between the central government and regional administrations in cleaning the sea and rivers or lakes with target of reducing plastic garbage by 70% in 2025.

Aryo cited a comparison that banana peel would entirely be decomposed in two weeks, but plastic bags could take 10-20 years to be decomposed and plastic bottles could even take hundreds of years.

He said a number of studies said that unless concrete steps are taken, in 2025 the Indonesian waters would be a pool of garbage and fish at a ratio of one to three. In 2050 , garbage could exceed the fish stock in volume, he added.

Therefore, he calls on the Jakarta city administration tobe more serious in cleaning the Jakarta Bay from garbage.

A public movement should be organized to carry out the program to discourage the use of plastic bags such as for merchandise by using paper bags instead.

Buying and recycling plastic garbage such as used plastic bottles from the people could also help reduce plastic garbage thrown into the rivers or the sea.

Jakarta`s vice governor Sandiaga Uno said that the sea in the Thousand Islands in the Jakarta Bay needs serious addressing or pollution could cause a disaster for the future generation.

Sandiaga said the burden of preserving the environment has been put only on the government while the largest contributor to the pollution is the private sector. He called on the business sector to take part in preserving a healthy environment in the capital city.

Director General of Garbage, Waste and Dangerous Poisonous Materials of the Ministry of the Environment and Forestry Rosa Vivien Ratnawati warned of serious health hazard caused by environmental pollution.

Rosa said those responsible for environmental pollution could face criminal charge.

The authorities supervising garbage treatment , the Environment and Forestry Minister, Governors, and Regents could face criminal charges for negligence that causes loss of life, she said.

She said the government is preparing a draft regulation on garbage treatment, facilities and infrastructure to support implementation of the regulation .

Meanwhile, non governmental organizations (NGO) Yayasan Keanekaragaman Hayati Indonesia also warned of the serious problem caused by plastic garbage, poisoning the aquatic creatures, which are partly for human consumption.

Executive Director of the foundation MS Sembiring said plastic garbage could cause big dent in the sea ecosystem, polluting the sea, poisoning the aquatic creatures and damaging the ridge of rock.

The garbage is brought to the sea mainly through rivers from Jakarta and other cities upstream. He said there are 13 rivers in Jakarta emptying into the Jakarta Bay. Sembiring said Jakarta and nearby areas produce around 7,000 tons of garbage per day.

Based on data from the Directorate General of Control of Pollution and Environmental Damage and Forestry, households are the largest contributors to pollution in the Jakarta Bay.

Therefore it is urgent that serious action should begin as early as possible to prevent the threat from more devastating to living things in the sea.

Editor: Heru Purwanto

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Microplastic pollution in oceans is far worse than feared, say scientists

A study reveals highest microplastic pollution levels ever recorded in a river in Manchester, UK and shows that billions of particles flooded into the sea from rivers in the area in just one year
Damian Carrington The Guardian 12 Mar 18;

The number of tiny plastic pieces polluting the world’s oceans is vastly greater than thought, new research indicates.

The work reveals the highest microplastic pollution yet discovered anywhere in the world in a river near Manchester in the UK. It also shows that the major floods in the area in 2015-16 flushed more than 40bn pieces of microplastic into the sea.

The surge of such a vast amount of microplastic from one small river catchment in a single event led the scientists to conclude that the current estimate for the number of particles in the ocean – five trillion – is a major underestimate.

Microplastics include broken-down plastic waste, synthetic fibres and beads found in personal hygiene products. They are known to harm marine life, which mistake them for food, and can be consumed by humans too via seafood, tap water or other food. The risk to people is still not known, but there are concerns that microplastics can accumulate toxic chemicals and that the tiniest could enter the bloodstream.

“Given their pervasive and persistent nature, microplastics have become a global environmental concern and a potential risk to human populations,” said Rachel Hurley from the University of Manchester and colleagues in their report, published in Nature Geoscience.

The team analysed sediments in 10 rivers within about 20km of Manchester and all but one of the 40 sites showed microplastic contamination. After the winter floods of 2015-16, they took new samples and found that 70% of the microplastics had been swept away, a total of 43bn particles or 850kg. Of those, about 17bn would float in sea water.

“This is a small to medium sized catchment in the north of England, it is one flood event, it is just one year – there is no way that [5tn global] estimate is right,” said Hurley. The researchers said total microplastic pollution in the world’s oceans “must be far higher”.

The worst hotspot, on the River Tame, had more than 500,000 microplastic particles per square metre in the top 10cm of river bed. This is the worst concentration ever reported and 50% more than the previous record, in beach sediments from South Korea. But Hurley said there may well be worse places yet to me measured: “We don’t have much data for huge rivers in the global south, which may have so much more plastic in.”

“There is so much effort going into the marine side of the microplastic problem but this research shows it is really originating upstream in river catchments,” she said. “We need to control those sources to even begin to clean up the oceans.”

About a third of microplastics found by the team before the flooding were microbeads, tiny spheres used in personal care products and banned in the UK in January. This high proportion surprised the scientists, who said the beads may well also derive from industrial uses, which are not covered by the ban.

Erik van Sebille, at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and and not part of the research team, said the work does support a much higher estimate of global microplastic pollution in the oceans: “I’m not surprised by that conclusion. In 2015, we found that is not on the surface anymore. The problem is that we don’t know where that 99% of plastic is. Is it on beaches, the seafloor, in marine organisms? Before we can start thinking about cleaning up the plastic, we’ll first need to know how it’s distributed.”

Anne Marie Mahon, at the Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology in Ireland and also not part of the research team, said: “I am actually glad to see the estimate going up a bit, just to show there is this huge contribution coming from the freshwater system.” However, she cautioned that not all the microplastics shown in the study to be flushed out by the floods necessarily entered the sea – some may have been washed over the floodplain instead.

“It is very difficult to tell how this plastic may be affecting us,” Hurley said. “But they definitely do enter our bodies. The missing gap is we need to know if we are getting contaminants inside us as a result of plastic particles.”

The smallest particles that could be analysed in the new research were 63 microns, roughly the width of a human hair. But much smaller plastic particles will exist, and Hurley said: “It is the really small stuff we get worried about, as they can get through the membranes in the gut and in the bloodstream – that is the real fear.”

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