Best of our wild blogs: 28 Dec 16

All That Wrapper
Hantu Blog

Consumer pressure to ditch deforestation begins to reach Indonesia’s oil palm plantation giants
Conservation news at Mongabay

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Singapore to tackle bacterial resistance to antibiotics

Carolyn Khew AsiaOne 27 Dec 16;

Singapore is developing a national action plan to tackle the problem of some bacteria becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics.

This is even as more Singaporeans reach out to such medication as a quick fix for their ailments.

The Ministry of Health (MOH) told The Straits Times that it is working with the Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA), the National Environment Agency and the National University of Singapore (NUS) to develop a nationwide strategy for antimicrobial resistance in Singapore.

This could include educating the public on which illnesses should or should not be treated with antibiotics, and stepping up the monitoring of their use.

Antimicrobial resistance refers to the ability of microbes such as bacteria and viruses to resist the effects of medicines that were previously able to kill them.

These microbes develop resistance to antimicrobial medicines when the latter are overused or misused.

Dr Hsu Li Yang, associate professor and programme leader of the antimicrobial resistance programme at the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health in NUS, said: "We are 'addicted' to antibiotics - it has become an integral part of human medicine and the livestock industry."

The more antibiotics a person takes, the more pressure there is for the bacteria to evolve and become resistant, he added.
While the ministry did not provide details of the action plan, The Straits Times understands that it will likely stick closely to recommendations made by the World Health Organisation to tackle antimicrobial resistance.

Besides targeting human medicine, the recommendations also focus on the use of antibiotics in livestock.

This could mean examining the use of antibiotics in Singapore's farms.

The AVA currently has a surveillance programme which tests for antibiotic residues in locally farmed produce to ensure food safety.

Infectious diseases specialist Paul Tambyah said a comprehensive approach is needed.

"Public education can help, especially when it is targeted at those who may not need antibiotics. But the reality is that far more antibiotics are used in agriculture than in human clinics and hospitals," he said.

Bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics - including those found in livestock - can pass their resistance genes to others in the gut once the meat is consumed, especially if it is not cooked properly.

As for human medicine, Dr Tambyah said better methods to diagnose ailments are needed so that doctors can target antibiotic treatment at people who actually need it.

The MOH currently has guidelines for doctors on the prescription of antibiotics.

But they are not mandatory.

General practitioner Leong Choon Kit said this is because not all cases are clear-cut.

Even so, doctors do generally adhere to them, said those interviewed.

Dr Winston Ho, medical director of Parkway Shenton, which has 55 clinics, said the decision to prescribe antibiotics when treating a patient for a particular infection is made after carefully assessing the patient's medical history and symptoms, among other things.

Patient education is key, he said.

"We encounter pressure from some patients to prescribe antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) all the time... They need to know that the majority of acute URTIs are viral in origin and antibiotics do not work on viruses."

Investment analyst Issac Foo, 27, said he requests antibiotics from the doctor every time he has tonsillitis. "My tonsillitis is severe and I cannot get well unless I take antibiotics."

The rise of deadly superbugs rendering even the strongest of antibiotics ineffective is causing widespread concern around the world.

In September, world leaders agreed at the United Nations General Assembly to develop action plans that would curb the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance.

It was only the fourth time in UN history that a health topic was discussed at the assembly, with the Ebola virus being among them.

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Kallang Riverside Park could be redeveloped

Carolyn Khew, Straits Times AsiaOne 27 Dec 16;

Although there have been calls for more amenities at Kallang Riverside Park (above), four of the five people The Straits Times spoke to said they would rather leave the park as it is.

Plans to redevelop Kallang Riverside Park could be on the horizon after a change of management earlier this year.

In response to queries from The Straits Times, both Gardens by the Bay and the National Parks Board said that Gardens had taken over the management of the Crawford section of Kallang Riverside Park and Marina Promenade in May this year.

Both areas will come under one of the three gardens under Gardens by the Bay - Bay Central Garden, which runs from Crawford Street to Raffles Avenue.

While Gardens did not reveal the plans it has for Kallang Riverside Park, developments are expected to take place later in Bay Central.

Although there have been calls for more amenities at the park, four of the five people The Straits Times spoke to said they would rather leave the park as it is.

Among them is founder and chairman of Waterways Watch Society, Mr Eugene Heng, whose non-governmental organisation has been at Kallang Riverside Park for the past 19 years since it was founded.

Home to about 500 volunteers, his NGO runs programmes for primary and secondary school students so they can learn more about the importance of keeping Singapore's waterways clean.

"I just hope they leave this place as rustic as possible rather than commercialise it. Kallang Riverside Park is one of the last places located next to a developed area and yet is still reminiscent of the old Singapore," said Mr Heng.

Kallang Riverside Park, which occupies both sides of the river, sees many dragon boaters and canoeists taking to the water, especially during the weekends.

Events organiser Bernadette Ordenes, 38, from expat dragon boat team Filipino Dragons (Singapore), said that the park has grown more crowded over the years with recent developments like the Sports Hub.

On weekends, the park is also a popular hangout for maids.

Ms Ordenes hopes that more amenities, such as toilets, can be built in the area as there is now only one available in the park, she said. Her dragon boat team trains on the Kallang River at least thrice a week.

The 15ha Bay Central Garden, which acts as a link between Bay South and Bay East Gardens, has a 3km waterfront promenade.

Gardens by the Bay started out as a project of NParks, but it later grew to become an independently managed organisation.

The largest garden, Bay South, officially opened in 2012.

Mr Ong Kah Seng, director of property research firm R'ST Research, said that Kallang Riverside Park and Marina Promenade's prime location is a "strong rationale" for Gardens to be interested in taking over their management.

"If redeveloped... Bay Central will be remade into a mini Gardens by the Bay, but never to the extent where it is so commercialised," said Mr Ong. "At most, a few lifestyle spots or commercial establishments will be built."

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Malaysia: Fading roar -- Only 23 tigers left in Terengganu

ROSLI ZAKARIA New Straits Times 27 Dec 16;

KUALA TERENGGANU: HABITAT loss, especially in forest reserves, and increased conflict with humans, have shrunk the tiger population in Terengganu to an estimated 23 animals.

The number is expected to decrease further.

The frequency of data capture based on sightings, camera trap research and wildlife inventory showed 16 tigers recorded in 2012, but this year, only seven were sighted, including one killed by poachers in Kemaman.

State National Parks and Wildlife Department director Mohd Hasdi said the seven sightings of the Malayan Tiger recorded this year were near forest reserves and in areas close to national park borders.

“Sightings or conflicts reported this year were in Kerteh and Cerul in Kemaman, Ketengah Jaya in Dungun and Kuala Berang in Hulu Terengganu.

“The numbers showed a decline, primarily due to habitat loss and conflict with humans for food.”

He said the department conducted enforcement in areas that had high tiger population, such as in forest reserves surrounding Tasik Kenyir, the Terengganu National Park, Puah and Tembat dams as well as in Kemaman, Dungun and Besut.

“A live tiger is more expensive than a dead one but it is not easy to trap a tiger alive. Usually, a tiger will either be shot dead or snared. A dead tiger or the sale of its body parts can fetch hundreds of thousands of ringgit.

“The parts, such as the fur and fangs, are sold for decorative purposes, while the gall, feet and meat are traded as traditional medicine.”

Hasdi said despite the high penalty imposed on offences related to the poaching of tigers, the crime persisted because of the lure of the high prices for the animal, dead or alive.

“Under the National Parks and Wildlife Act Amended Act 716, those who committed tiger-related offences can be fined from RM100,000 to RM500,000. But it seems the high penalties are no deterrent.

“We need to reinforce the law with intelligence activities and increase public awareness in hotspots and conflict areas.

“We also provide technical recommendations in Environmental Impact Assessment on mitigation measures to prevent conflicts and to avoid development in areas that will disturb the habitat of tigers.”

He said the department was also conducting a study under the Central Forest Spine (CFS) at three viaducts in Hulu Terengganu together with Tenaga Nasional Bhd and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, as well as several related non-governmental organisations.

“The study covers all wildlife and not specifically tigers,” he said.

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Malaysia: Water supply disruption long and tedious due to Selangor state’s low water reserve margin

RAZAK AHMAD and WANI MUTHIAH The Star 28 Dec 16;

PETALING JAYA: Selangor’s big water problems stem from the fact that it has a very low water reserve margin.

The water reserve margin is the difference between the production capacity of water treatment plants and the usage.

And every time water supply is disrupted, consumers have to wait for a long time for supply to resume.

Selangor is not alone in facing such problems. Other states with low water reserve margin include Kedah, Sabah and Perlis.

Selangor and Kedah, however, are the most critical as they are currently producing treated water at levels beyond the design capacity of their treatment plants just to meet demand.

The reserve margin in these two states is below zero, with Selangor at -1.5% and Kedah at -0.5%. Perlis has a reserve margin of 5.6% and Sabah is at 5.8%.

Association of Water and Energy Research Malaysia president S. Piarapakaran said the situation in the four states was worrying, adding that the margin should ideally be above 20%. He said plans to increase the margin were needed when the level drops below 10%.

“When the reserve margin falls to 5% and below, it enters the critical zone,” he added.

Piarapakaran said the margin can be raised by upgrading or building more treatment plants.

It can also be boosted by reducing non revenue water (NRW), which is treated water that is produced but is “lost” before reaching consumers due to pipe leaks or water theft.

Piarapakaran said Selangor’s low reserve margin, which has been dropping over the years, was one reason why it takes a long time for supply to fully recover after a treatment plant shutdown.

Water supply recovery will also take longer when high capacity treatment plants are shut down either due to pollution or urgent maintenance.

Selangor’s highest capacity water treatment facilities are the Sungai Selangor Phase 1, 2 and 3 plants which produce 70% of treated water for the Klang Valley.

Others include Langat and Semenyih treatment plants.

Recently, a 16-hour shutdown of the Bukit Badong substation for urgent maintenance work caused water supply disruption to 3.9 million residents and it took several days to resume normal supply.

In October, treatment plants near Sungai Semenyih had to be shut down twice within two weeks, because of odour pollution, affecting over 330,000 households.

This was followed by dry taps in 420,000 households in Kuala Lumpur, Petaling and Hulu Langat after the Langat and Sungai Cheras Batu 11 water treatment plants abruptly halted operations following odour pollution in Sungai Semantan, Pahang.

Disruption in raw water supply can also lead to water cuts.

In Johor, lower rainfall in August last year caused lower water levels in rivers such as Sungai Johor, leading to a month-long scheduled water distribution exercise in some areas in Johor Baru and Kota Tinggi.

Selangor state executive councillor in charge of public amenities Zaidy Abdul Talib said Selangor’s reserve margin was at about 4% and was not in the negative as alleged.

Syabas corporate communications head Amin Lin Abdullah concurred that Selangor’s water margin was currently at about 4%.

“Reserve margins often fluctuate as when there is very high demand for water at a particular time, the reserve would drop,” he said.

On whether Selangor was producing treated water beyond the capacity of its existing treatment plants, he said almost all treatment plants were currently running beyond capacity.

Amin said that was why the state was building two more water treatment plants.

“We are building Semenyih 2 and Labohan Dagang water treatment plants to raise water production to cater to the rising demand,” he said.

Amin said the state government’s target was to achieve a water reserve margin of 15% in the long-term.

Faulty pipes main reason for NRW, says SPAN
ROYCE TAN The Star 28 Dec 16;

PETALING JAYA: One of the main reasons behind the low water reserve margins is Malaysia’s non-revenue water (NRW). And that is mainly the result of leakage from faulty pipes.

The country has an average NRW of 35.5%, which means for every one litre of treated water produced, 0.355 litre is lost.

Leakage accounts for 70% of the country’s average NRW.

Replacing and laying new pipes is by no means simple and some water operators do not even have the financial means to do so.

This then would trickle down to water tariffs, where state governments would have to make hard and sometimes unpopular decisions, said National Water Services Commission (SPAN) chairman Datuk Liang Teck Meng.

“The longer you drag the issue, the worse it will become. Water operators need money to lay new pipes.

“If the operators are unable to make money or are financially strapped, they can opt to migrate to the Water Asset Management Company (PAAB).

“Operators can transfer their liabilities to PAAB over a period of time, for example 45 years, with an interest of around 3% to 4%, and they will have access to funds to lay new pipes to control water leakage and improve the water reserve level,” Liang told The Star in an interview yesterday.

PAAB is an entity under the Finance Ministry and is part of the Federal Government’s efforts to restructure the water services industry to achieve better efficiency and quality.

Liang said that when water operators were faced with lack of revenue, they would not have enough money to build more plants, which was also vital in raising the water reserve margin.

“That’s why we always encourage states to migrate their services to the PAAB.

“If the company itself is already in bad shape, do you think financial institutions and banks will offer you loans?

“The funds from the PAAB are guaranteed by the Government. The funds can be used to lay new pipes and build new plants which will help ensure that the water reserves go up,” he added.

If the low level of water reserves are left uncontrolled, Liang said more water disruptions might occur during the dry seasons or when there are water pollution problems.

He said when there is a margin of 20% to 30%, a water treatment plant can be closed only for several hours if there was upgrading or repair work to be done.

“Once the work is completed, the water from the reserves can be channelled to the users and the residents immediately.

“There will be no need to wait for the water to be treated first.”

States with the highest NRW are Perlis at 56.3%, Pahang at 52.8%, Kelantan at 49% and Kedah at 46.7%. Selangor has an NRW of 32%.

“If you look at Kedah, it means that almost half of the water they produce is gone.

“States with high NRW have to settle this problem and also review their tariffs to bring these companies back on track.

“As far as Selangor is concerned, until the Langat 2 is completed by 2019, there is no way we can increase the state’s water reserve margin to 20%.

“We also worry about next year as a report from Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor (Syabas) showed Selangor may face a deficit because the water they treat is insufficient to meet the demand,” he said.

Liang said consumers should use water wisely.

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Indonesia: North Sulawesi to build a giant dam

Pewarta: Otniel Tamindael Antara 27 Dec 16;

Jakarta (ANTARA News) - Expected to be completed in 2019, the Kuwil dam in Kawangkoan, North Minahasa District, will be a giant reservoir in the Indonesian province of North Sulawesi.

Kuwil dam, with a perspective of a lake extending across 308 hectares of land and with a water volume of up to 23 million cubic meters, will be the largest reservoir in the province upon completion.

The giant dam could improve the welfare of the locals, allowing them to irrigate extensive rice fields, generate electricity, and enjoy other economic activities.

President Joko Widodo (Jokowi), on visiting the Kuwil dam site, remarked on Tuesday that the dam will serve as a raw water reserve for the region, including Manado, Bitung, North Minahasa, and the surrounding areas.

In addition, the president noted that the dam will help control flooding from the Tondano River and will become a tourism attraction.

On land acquisition, the president said there were no significant problems for the development of the giant reservoir.

A number of tombs remain in the selected field and have not yet been relocated, but the president claimed their removal was only a technical matter.

The government moved up the completion of the dam from 2020 to 2019 to extract immediate benefits for the local community.

The Public Works and Public Housing Ministrys Director General of Water Resources Imam Santoso noted that the dams development had progressed to two percent.

According to him, the construction of the dam is a strategic initiative that will benefit the local community.

Imam noted that a 1.8-kilometer driveway and a dodger tunnel were currently being constructed.

The dam will require 306 hectares of land; so far, only 128 hectares have been acquired.

Imam said the acquired land is being used for the driveway and will not face any obstacles.

"The rest of the land will be acquired by involving the provincial government, but in principle, the land owners are ready to move," Imam affirmed.

The construction of the dam will cost the state budget Rp1.43 trillion. Some Rp78 billion has been spent on the acquisition of the 128 hectares of land.

Discussing the development, Imam noted the contractor needed to break through a hill and clear the mountain trail.

Imam revealed the project had been fast-tracked for completion in 2019 as its development had gained support from the North Sulawesi administration, the North Minahasa district administration, and the local residents.

"The dam was built to reduce floods in Manado and the surrounding areas by 282.18 cubic meters per second," Imam reported.

Located near the Tanggari Hydro Power Plant II, this is one of eight new dams being built this year. The government has set a target of building 65 dams, comprising 16 uncompleted dams, built in 2014, and 49 new dams.

The Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing has set a target to complete the tender process for eight dams, worth a combined Rp8.6 trillion (approx. US$637 million).

Imam added that 49 of the dam construction projects---all scheduled for completion by 2019---were considered strategic national programs by the Indonesian government.

Of these 49 dam projects, 16 were tendered in 2014 and are currently under construction. Another 13 dams were tendered last year.

The construction of a dam is a complex process that can take up to five years to complete.

In the past, the construction of dams in Indonesia was blocked by land acquisition problems---a major issue affecting all forms of development in Southeast Asias largest economy, typically leading to the delay or cancellation of numerous infrastructure projects.

However, Imam stressed, part of the land required to construct the new dam had already been acquired before the project was tendered, implying that construction could begin immediately after the winner is announced.

If the construction of these dams is completed as planned, they will be capable of holding enough water for the irrigation of 38.4 thousand hectares of agricultural land and of facilitating flood prevention.

These dams are also expected to generate a combined 20.74 MW of power.

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Australia: Uluru closed due to record rain and flash flooding

World-renowned Australian national park off limits ‘until further notice’ as a deep low-pressure system moves across Northern Territory
Australian Associated Press The Guardian 26 Dec 16;

Record-breaking rain and flash flooding closed Uluru national park on Monday until further notice, Parks Australia said.

A deep low-pressure system moved slowly south-east across the Northern Territory during the day, carrying locally destructive winds, heavy rain and the risk of flash flooding, according to the Bureau of Meteorology.

“Due to an extreme weather event, Uluru-Kata Tjuta national park has been closed until further notice,” Parks Austalia said in a statement. “Our rangers are checking the condition of the roads every hour in a bid to reopen as soon as it is safe to do so.”

Almost 100 people were evacuated and many houses damaged in Kintore, a small community about 500km west of Uluru, the ABC reported. On Monday 85 were still sheltering at a local school. All roads were impassable into Kintore from the Northern Territory and access was also difficult from Western Australia, local police said.

The weather bureau listed Yulara, north of the park, as a location that would be affected. Peak wind gusts reached up to 125km/h and the Walungurru district recorded 232mm of rain in 24 hours.

“We’ve only got about 15 years of records at that location, but it’s clearly well above previous totals,” the bureau forecaster Mosese Raico said.

The previous highest monthly total for December for that region was 161mm, recorded in 2003. The highest daily total for any time of the year was 127mm, recorded in March 2006.

Raico said the low was not expected to move into South Australia until Tuesday and heavy rain would persist.

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China's Xinjiang region culls 55,000 chickens after bird flu outbreak

Reuters 27 Dec 16;

China's Xinjiang region has culled more than 55,000 chickens and other poultry following an outbreak of a highly virulent bird flu that has infected 16,000 birds, the Ministry of Agriculture said on Tuesday.

The H5N6 strain of the virus was confirmed in Yining, a city of 500,000 people, and has killed 10,716 birds, the ministry said.

It is the fourth flu outbreak among poultry since October and brings the total cull since then to more than 170,000 birds. Flocks are particularly vulnerable to avian flu during the winter months and sporadic outbreaks are relatively common.The culling comes amid fears about the spread of avian flu across Asia, with South Korea battling its worst-ever outbreak and Japan and India also killing flocks.

South Korea is currently trying to contain the H5N6 strain, which has caused 10 human deaths in China since April 2014.

At least seven people in China have been infected this winter with the H7N9 bird flu strain and two have died.

To bolster their defense against infection, Chinese poultry farmers have scrambled to give their chickens more vitamins and vaccines in recent weeks.

Beijing has banned poultry imports from more than 60 countries and said any countries with highly pathogenic cases will automatically go onto that list. Regional authorities in three provinces have curbed live poultry trading in some cities to prevent the spread of the disease.

The last major bird flu outbreak in China in 2013 killed 36 people and caused more than $6 billion in losses for the agriculture sector.

In a statement on its website on Sunday, the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention warned that the issue warrants greater attention this year, because the disease is developing earlier than in previous years, and cases are increasing more quickly in some districts.

(Reporting by Hallie Gu and Josephine Mason; Editing by Christian Schmollinger)

Hong Kong's first bird flu patient this winter dies
Reuters 27 Dec 16;

An elderly Hong Kong man died on Christmas Day from bird flu, the government said on Tuesday, the first human infection in the city this winter.

The Centre for Health Protection of the Health Department said the 75-year-old man, who was diagnosed with the H7N9 strain, died on Sunday.

Last week, Hong Kong confirmed the first human bird flu infection for this season after the man, who had recently traveled to China, was diagnosed with H7N9.

South Korea and Japan ordered further culls early last week to contain outbreaks of a different strain of bird flu, having already killed tens of millions of birds in the past month.

At least seven people in China have been infected with H7N9 this winter and two have died.

Hong Kong, a former British colony which returned to Chinese rule in 1997, has been battling sporadic cases of avian influenza in humans since the first outbreak killed six people in the same year.

(Reporting by Donny Kwok; Editing by Nick Macfie)

Indian state orders poultry cull after bird flu outbreak
Jatindra Dash, Reuters Yahoo News 27 Dec 16;

BHUBANESWAR, India (Reuters) - An eastern Indian state ordered the cull of more than 2,500 chickens and other poultry after four dead crows and three dead poultry tested positive for the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, officials said on Tuesday.

The bird flu virus was confirmed at Keranga village, about 35 km (22 miles) from Bhubaneswar, the capital of Odisha state, veterinary officials said, days after dozens of crows and chickens were found dead.

More than 30,000 birds were culled in a similar outbreak in the region in 2012.

"We have issued an advisory to follow immediate measures to complete culling operations, surveillance and sanitization in the infected area," Commissioner-cum-Secretary of the state's Fisheries and Animal Resources Development Department Bishnupada Sethi told Reuters.

"Over 2,500 poultry birds are being culled within one kilometer of the epicenter for control and containment of bird flu. It's the first time in the current season that this type of bird flu was detected in the state and in the same area."

The H5N1 strain is considered as highly pathogenic. It can also transmit to animals such as pigs, horse, large cats, dogs and occasionally humans.

China reported two fatalities from H7N9 bird flu last week, its first fatalities among this winter's cases, stoking fears the virus could spread at a time when other Asian nations are battling to control outbreaks of the disease.

South Korea and Japan have been scrambling to contain outbreaks of different strains of bird flu, with the poultry industry there bracing for heavy financial losses.

The H5N1 strain is, however, less dangerous than the highly contagious H5N8 strain found in several European countries in the past few weeks.

(Editing by Malini Menon and Nick Macfie)

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Scientists develop method to warn of toxic algae blooms before they develop

University of Virginia Science Daily 26 Dec 16;

A new study demonstrates that automated monitoring systems that identify 'regime shifts' -- such as rapid growth of algae and then depletion of oxygen in the water -- can successfully predict full-scale algae blooms in advance, and help resource managers avert their development.

Toxic algae blooms in lakes and reservoirs are highly destructive, resulting in fish kills and toxicity risks to wildlife, livestock -- and even humans. But their development is difficult to predict. Resource managers would like to stop such events in their tracks, before blooms cross a threshold and grow to the point of damaging a body of water.

A new study, published December 26 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, demonstrates that automated monitoring systems that identify "regime shifts" -- such as rapid growth of algae and then depletion of oxygen in the water -- can successfully predict full-scale algae blooms in advance, and help resource managers avert their development.

Prior studies indicated that this might be possible, but the researchers have now proven this is so during experiments in an isolated lake in Michigan. The researchers caused an algae bloom in the experimental lake by gradually enriching it with nutrients, similar to the flow of nutrients that might occur in a lake downstream of an agricultural area or city. As they did this, they also closely monitored a nearby un-enriched lake, and a third continuously enriched "reference" lake.

Once the gradually enriched experimental lake exceeded pre-set boundaries, the researchers halted the flow of nutrients. They found that algae growth quickly declined, resulting in conditions similar to those in the un-enriched lake. Meanwhile, a large algae bloom formed in the continuously enriched lake.

"Our system detected early warnings more than two weeks prior to the bloom," said University of Virginia environmental scientist Michael Pace, who led the study. "In the experiment where nutrient inputs were cut off when early warnings occurred, the algae bloom was reversed. These whole-lake experiments show that early warning systems can be used to manage algae blooms in lakes, if rapid reductions of nutrient inputs or treatments for algae are possible."

Pace noted, however, that instead of relying on early warnings, "it would be better to reduce nutrient inputs from the start so that algae blooms do not occur at all."

Researchers at UVA, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Rutgers University and the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies conducted the study.

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